Validated Measures for Research with Vulnerable & Special Populations

Validated measures are surveys and screening questionnaires that have been tested to ensure production of reliable, accurate results. The instruments provided here are designed for primary data collection and were selected for applicability to groups the NIH has termed "special populations", under-represented in patient-oriented research. The aim is to encourage inclusion of a broader range of human subjects in studies at UCSF and beyond. Learn about the development of this resource.

Help improve this compendium: Contact us with any comments on or additions to the measures themselves, suggestions for additional domains, and feedback regarding how you have used this resource.

Get Help Using Measures

Use the Find Experts links below to access a list of UCSF researchers with expertise in each area.

For in-depth assistance: Request Consultation

Domains

Note: If you are outside the UCSF network, access to publications referenced below may be limited.

SOCIAL FACTORS

Educational Attainment

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Short Version

The MacArthur Educational Status Measurement Approaches for both "years of educational attainment" and "credentials earned" are brief.

Notes

The Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health has enhanced understanding of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors affect the health of individuals and their communities. The Network’s research agenda established in 1997 has stimulated additional research in diverse fields, has contributed data to discussions of economic and social policy, and has provided a basis for social and medical interventions to foster better health among individuals and communities.

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Immigration Status

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Validation Papers

Notes

CDC Vital and Health Statistics contains a review of the literature on the use of immigration status survey questions.

Back to top

Incarceration History/Status

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Health and Retirement Study (HRS) since 2012 (see 35b and 35c). Info was incorporated into the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

Validation Papers

Notes

Recommended: a larger set of questions items from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

Back to top

Limited English Proficiency

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

UCSF Center for Aging in Diverse Communities: Measurement Core (self-report survey; Recommended Sociodemographic Measures)

Translated Version

Validation Papers

Notes

  • U.S. Census Question: How well do you speak English (Very Well, Well, Not Well, Not At All)?
  • Preferred Language for Healthcare: In what language do you prefer to receive your healthcare?
  • Combination of the two in an algorithm to determine need for language access services.

Back to top

Back to top

Sexual Preference and Gender Identity

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Translated Version

NHIS Sexual Identity Questions - Spanish Version (please refer to Spanish questionaire at end of file)

Validation Papers

Notes

Pridestudy.org has comprehensive and important guidance, including an analysis of the shortcomings of commonly used measures.

Back to top

Social Determinants / Resources / Needs

 

Pending.

Back to top

Socioeconomic Status / Income / Assets

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Translated Version

Notes

The Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health has enhanced understanding of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors affect the health of individuals and their communities. The Network’s research agenda established in 1997 has stimulated additional research in diverse fields, has contributed data to discussions of economic and social policy, and has provided a basis for social and medical interventions to foster better health among individuals and communities.

Back to top

HEALTHCARE EXPERIENCE

Back to top

Back to top

Discrimination in Healthcare (perceived/self-reported; overall and race, language, income, gender, sexual preference/sexual identity)

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

  • Measuring Discrimination Resource (has both types of measures, short-form versions, and many citations)
  • Adapted Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) - a structured self-administered questionnaire assessing the experience of white racism against African Americans in multiple domains including employment and public domains. It has been validated in several studies and has demonstrated good reliability. More info

Short Version

Everyday Discrimination Survey (Short or extended versions in document)

Validation Papers

Notes

The expert here is David Williams. This is usually separated by 1) Major Life Events vs. 2) Everyday interactions, and then within domains (Work, School, etc.) and by specific reason (ancestry, gender, race, etc.) (Lyles)

Re: Hausmann, et al.: This is less studied overall in my opinion. This is the best paper I have seen directly comparing different ways of assessing healthcare discrimination, but it unfortunately doesn’t have a specific conclusion about which is best to use overall. (Lyles)

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Shared Decision-Making Preferences

 

Pending.

Back to top

Trust in Health System

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Medical Mistrust (created by Tom LaVeist at Johns Hopkins) includes a short-form scale of 7 items and the attachments at the bottom include a longer 17-item scale.

Validation Papers

Back to top

Back to top

Trust in Physician/Provider

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Patient Trust in Physician Scale (TIPS) (Modified from Anderson and Dedrick)

Validation Papers

Studies of trust and race/ethnicity that have used TIPS:

Back to top

DISABILITY

Dementia Screening/Diagnosis

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Translated Version

Validation Papers

Back to top

Back to top

Functional Status (Pediatrics)

 

Pending.

Back to top

Geriatric Syndromes

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Validation Papers

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Other Disability

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Translated Version

Validation Papers

Notes

Some of the most widely used internationally validated disability measures are the Washington Group Disability Sets.

Back to top

OTHER DOMAINS

Back to top

Child Abuse/Neglect

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Short Version

Validation Papers

Notes

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network provides Standardized Measures to Assess Complex Trauma. This table lists specific tools that can be used either to assess a broad range of complex trauma domains or tap into a specific domain in greater detail. Please note that this is not an exhaustive list of assessments; other tools may be available that are not listed here.

Back to top

Interpersonal Violence

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Short Version

The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) CTS2S short form (the IPV-GBM article used the CTS2S as one of their measures)

Validation Papers

Notes

There are many measures of interpersonal violence. One would need to search surveys more specific to their interest.

Back to top

Sexual Trauma

 

Pending.

Back to top

Tobacco Use

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Back to top

Other Severe Mental Illness

Find Experts >

English Version(s)

K6 measures nervousness, helplessness, restlessness, depression, effort, and worthlessness. K10 measures these plus fatigue and hopelessness, and has additional questions on nervousness and restlessness.

Translated Version

Validation Papers

Back to top